Abstract: As any other star, our Sun is not only a source of light but also the source of stellar (solar) wind. Planetary magnetic fields shield planets like Earth from such winds, by creating an obstacle to the incoming particle flow and forming bow shock. This interaction originates a turbulent region – the magnetosheath, and gives form to the magnetosphere itself into the well-known tear-like shape, similar to a turbulent wake behind an obstacle. Since the beginning of the space age, numerous satellites have provided invaluable information about particle distribution functions and magnetic and electric fields, making a strong contribution to plasma physics. At the same time, they allowed us to start understanding the extreme processes in the near space, such as geomagnetic storms and substorms, that threaten human operations both in space and on ground. We focus on the study of turbulence in space plasmas and its role in the solar wind – magnetosphere interactions and the transport of plasma and energy between different regions of the magnetosphere. We also study the role of total pressure balance in magnetospheric dynamics, including the physics of geomagnetic storms and substorms. We also look at the mechanisms of injection, acceleration, and loss of particles in radiation belts, and address the problem of mapping from the ionosphere to the equatorial plane. We also touch on some hot topics of space physics relevant for astrophysics.